Hemifacial spasm is a neurological disorder in which blood vessels constrict the 7th nerve and cause various degrees of spasming. This typically originates around the eye of the affected side of the face. This condition produces involuntary spasms of the face. Botulinum toxin will control these spasms in greater than 90% of cases. This provides temporary relief and needs to be repeated every 3-4 months. Side effects are minimal and include dryness, tearing, or drooping of the eyelids.
Blepharospasm is a localized movement disorder that affects the muscles that control eyelid movement. The disorder is characterized by increased blinking caused by involuntary spasms of the muscles controlling the eyelids. Both eyes are usually affected and can result in functional blindness. About 75% of patients are female with the average age of onset at 56 years. Although the exact cause of this disorder is unknown, experts believe that it may be caused by a defect in the basal ganglia- group of nerve cells in the central nervous system. Botox is injected directly in the affected eye muscles to relieve these spasms. The duration of effect lasts for three to four months.
BLEPHAROSPASM CASE STUDY: PATIENT SG*
This patient is a 51 year old, African American female who, at the age of 46, began to develop forced closing of the eyes. For the past several years, she has been quite sensitive to sunlight and has had to wear sunglasses frequently. The patient has also noticed frequent blinking that, in the last 2 weeks, worsened to the point of forced closing of the eyes. She reported needing to use her fingers to keep her eyes open. The patient is unable to drive or shop alone and has difficulty with daily activities due to the forced eye closing. She has tried Artane, but noticed no improvement. Botulinum Toxin corrected her condition.
* Individual results may vary
Strabismus is characterized by a deviation in alignment of one eye from the other. In adults, strabismus can occur gradually or rapidly. The most common form of strabismus is esotropia (convergent) which occurs when the eye turns toward the nose. In exotropia (divergent) the eye turns away from the nose. One or both eyes may also turn up or down. Generally the eyes turn in different directions. Botox is used to treat this condition and is injected into muscle that is pulling the eye inward or outward.